# Recent questions in Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

1
The Bt toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis used to generate genetically modified crops is cry cro cdc cre
2
Which one of the following is used as a $pH$ indicator in animal cell culture medium ? Acridine orange Phenol red Bromophenol blue Coomassie blue
3
Tetracycline inhibits the interaction between tRNA and mRNA translocation of mRNA through ribosome peptidyl transferase activity binding of amino-acyl tRNA to ribosome
4
Which one of the following is a database of protein sequence motifs? PROSITE TrEMBL SWISSPROT PDB
5
Which one of the following enzymes is encoded by human immunodeficiency virus $(HIV)$ genome? Reverse transcriptase Phospholipase Phosphatase $ATP$ synthase
6
$DNA$ synthesis in eukaryotes occurs during which phase of the mitotic cell cycle? $M$ $G_{1}$ $S$ $G_{10}$
7
Match the human disease in Group I with the causative agents in Group II. ... -3, Q-4, R-2, S-1 P-3, Q-2, R-1, S-4 P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2 P-4, Q-3, R-1,S-2
8
Which one of the following techniques can be used to compare the expression of a large number of genes in two biological samples in a single experiment? Polymerase chain reaction DNA microarray Northern hybridization Southern hybridization
9
Which of the following processes can increase genetic diversity of bacteria in nature? Conjugation Transformation Transduction Transfection P only P and Q only P, Q and R only P, Q, R and S
10
Which one of the following is NOT a part of the human nonspecific defense system? Interferon Mucous Saliva Antibody
11
A mutation in a gene that codes for a polypeptide results in a variant polypeptide that lacks the last three amino acids. What type of mutation is this? Synonymous mutation Nonsense mutation Missense mutation Silent mutation
12
Which one of the following equation represents a one-dimensional wave equation? $\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}=C^{2}\frac{\partial ^{2}u}{\partial x^{2}}$ $\frac{\partial ^{2}u}{\partial t^{2}}=C^{2}\frac{\partial ^{2}u}{\partial x^{2}}$ $\frac{\partial ^{2}u}{\partial t^{2}}=C^{2}\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}$ $\frac{\partial ^{2}u}{\partial t^{2}}+C^{2}\frac{\partial ^{2}u}{\partial x^{2}}=0$
13
Which of the following are geometric series? $1,\:6,\:11,\:16,\:21,\:26,\:\dots$ $9,\:6,\:3,\:0,\:-3,\:-6,\:\dots$ $1,\:3,\:9,\:27,\:81,\:\dots$ $4,\:-8,\:16,\:-32,\:64,\:\dots$ P and Q only R and S only Q and S only P, Q and R only
14
Which one of the following statements is CORRECT for enzyme catalyzed reactions? ( $\Delta G$ is Gibbs free energy change, $K_{eq}$ is equilibrium constant) Enzymes affect $\Delta G$, but not $K_{eq}$ Enzymes affect $K_{eq}$, but not $\Delta G$ Enzymes affect both $\Delta G$ and $K_{eq}$ Enzymes do not affect $\Delta G$ or $K_{eq}$
15
Which one of the following can NOT be a limiting substrate if Monod's growth kinetics is applicable? Extracellular carbon source Extracellular nitrogen source Dissolved oxygen Intracellular carbon source
16
Which one of the following is the unit of heat transfer coefficient? $W\:m^{2}K^{-1}$ $W\:m^{-2}K$ $W\:m^{-2}K^{-1}$ $W\:m^{2}K$
17
Which one of the following is catabolized during endogenous metabolism in a batch bacterial cultivation? internal reserves extracellular substrates extracellular products toxic substrates
18
Which one of the following need NOT be conserved in a biochemical reaction? Total mass Total moles Number of atoms of each element Total energy
19
The number of possible rooted trees in a phylogeny of three species is ______.
20
Matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix} 0&6 \\ p&0 \end{bmatrix}$ will be skew-symmetric when $p$= ____.
21
In a batch culture of Penicillium chrysogenum, the maximum penicillin synthesis occurs during the lag phase exponential phase stationary phase death phase
22
Which of the following is employed for the repeated use of enzymes in bioprocesses? polymerization immobilization ligation isomerization
23
The degree of reduction of ethanol is_______
24
A solution was prepared by dissolving $\text{100 mg}$ of protein $X$ in $\text{100 ml}$ of water. Molecular weight of protein $X$ is $\text{15,000 Da};$ Avogadro’s number = $6.022\times 10^{23}$. Calculate the molarity$(\mu M)$ of the resulting solution. $66.6$ $6.6$ $0.67$ $0.067$
25
A fed batch culture was operated with intermittent addition of glucose solution at a flow rate of $\text{200 ml h}^{-1}$. The values of $K_s,\: \mu_m$ and $D$ are $\text{0.3 g l}^{-1}, 0.4\:h^{-1}$ and $\text{0.1 h}^{-1}$, respectively. Determine the concentration of growth limiting substrate $(gl^{-1})$ in the reactor at quasi-steady state. ______________
26
The maximum cell concentration $(\text{g l}^{-1})$ expected in a bioreactor with initial cell concentration of $\text{1.75 g l}^{-1}$ and an initial glucose concentration of $\text{125 g l}^{-1}$ is ($Y_{X/S} = 0.6\:g\:cell/g$ substrate) ____________.
27
A batch bioreactor is to be scaled up from $\text{10 to 10,000}$ liters. The diameter of the large bioreactor is $10$ times that of the small bioreactor. The agitator speed in the small bioreactor is $\text{450 rpm}$. Determine the agitator speed (rpm) of the large bioreactor with same impeller tip speed as that of the small bioreactor. ____________
28
A chemostat is operated at a dilution rate of $0.6\; h^{-1}$. At steady state, the biomass concentration in the exit stream was found to be $30\; gl^{-1}$The biomass productivity $(g\; l^{-1}h^{-1})$ after $3h$ of steady state operation will be ___________.
29
At the end of a batch culture. glucose solution is added at a flow rate of 200 nil-"h. If theculture volume after 2 h of glucose addition is 1000 ml. the initial culture volume (in 1111)is
30
A microbial strain is cultured in a 100 I. stirred fermenter for secondary metaboliteproduction. If the specic rate of oxygen uptake is 0.4 h'1 and the oxygen solubility in thebroth is 8 mg L. then the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (Km) (in sl) of oxygenrequired to achieve a maximum cell concentration of 12 gL is (up to two decimalplaces)
31
An aqueous solution containing 6.8 mg I. of an antibiotic is extracted with ainyl acetate. Ifthe partition coefcient of the antibiotic is 170 and the ratio of water to solvent is 85. thenthe extraction factor is